1. Heat olive oil in a soup pot or Dutch oven over medium heat. Add leeks, celery, zucchini, carrots, garlic, rosemary, salt, and pepper. Cook until vegetables are soft and juicy, about 10 minutes.
2. Add cabbage, tomatoes with juice, basil, and Herbes de Provence and season again with salt and pepper. Cook until cabbage is just tender, about 10 minutes.
3. Stir in beans and vegetable broth. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer gently for 20 minutes.
4. Remove the rosemary sprig. Stir in challah, spinach, and peas. Increase heat to medium and cook until soup thickens, about 10 minutes more.
5. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Ladle soup into warm bowls. Drizzle with extra-virgin olive oil.
6. Serve with toasted bread.